A (im)possibilidade do uso de Lethal Autonomous Weapon System frente ao direito internacional humanitário e a ética

Haide Maria Hupffer, Gabriel Cemin Petry

Resumo


Este artigo discute o uso de Lethal Autonomous Weapon System (armas autônomas capazes de detectar e atacar alvos sem intervenção humana, detendo capacidade de autogoverno) que põe em xeque conceitos éticos e do Direito Internacional Humanitário, pela sua autonomia para realizar a tomada de decisões, como de vida ou morte.


Palavras-chave


Inteligência Artificial; Direito Internacional Humanitário; Lethal Autonomous Weapon System; Ética

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Arkin, Ronald C. 2017. “A robotocist’s perspective on lethal autonomous weapon systems”. Perspectives on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, no. 30 (November): 35-47. https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/6866E44ADB996042C12581D400630B9A/$file/op30.pdf

Asaro, Peter. 2012. On banning autonomous weapon systems: human rights, automation, and the dehumanization of lethal decision-making. International Review of the Red Cross, v. 94, no. 886 (Summer): p. 687-709. doi:10.1017/S1816383112000768

Brasil. 1993. Decreto n°.849, de 25 de junho de 1993. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/1990-1994/D0849.htm.

Brasil. 2002. Decreto n°.4388, de 25 de setembro de 2002. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/2002/D4388.htm

Boulanin, Vincent. 2016. Mapping the development of autonomy in weapon systems: A primer on autonomy. Solna, Sweden: SIPRI, (December).

https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/Mapping-development-autonomy-in-weapon-systems.pdf

Davison, Neil. 2017. A Legal Perspective: Autonomous weapon systems under international humanitarian law. Perspectives on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, no. 30 (November): 5-18. https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/6866E44ADB996042C12581D400630B9A/$file/op30.pdf

Faggella, Daniel. 2018. What is Artificial Intelligence? An Informed Definition, Emerj Artificial Intelligence Research.TechEmergence. (December). https://emerj.com/ai-glossary-terms/what-is-artificial-intelligence-an-informed-definition/

Frost, Mervyn. 2005. Ética y guerra: más alla de la teoria de la guerra justa. Revista Académica de Relaciones Internacionales, no. 3, (Octubre): 1-27. https://revistas.uam.es/index.php/relacionesinternacionales/article/view/4840/5309.

Hagstörm, Martin. 2016. “Characteristics of autonomous weapon systems”. Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons. Expert meeting, Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC (15-16 March): 23-25. https://shop.icrc.org/autonomous-weapon-systems.html?___store=fr&_ga=2.36932896.1627033310.1572366031-1120845335.1572366031

ICRC. 2016. Views of the ICRC on autonomous weapon systems. Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Meeting of Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS), Geneva, 11-16 April 2016. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/views-icrc-autonomous-weapon-system

Jonas, Hans. 2006. O princípio responsabilidade: Ensaio de uma nova ética para civilização tecnológica. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, Ed. PUC-Rio.

Legg, Shane, and Marcus Hutter. 2006. “A formal measure of machine intelligence”, In Proc. 15th Annual Machine Learning Conference of Belgium and The Netherlands, (May) 73-80. https://arxiv.org/abs/cs/0605024v1

Lele, Ajey. 2016. Missile-and rocket-defence weapon systems. Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons. Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC, (15-16 March): 31-32. https://shop.icrc.org/autonomous-weapon-systems.html?___store=fr&_ga=2.36932896.1627033310.1572366031-1120845335.1572366031

Lele, Ajey. 2017. “A military perspective on lethal autonomous weapon systems”. Perspectives on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, no. 30 (November): 57-61. https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/6866E44ADB996042C12581D400630B9A/$file/op30.pdf

ONU. 1994. Carta das Nações Unidas. Assinada em 26 de junho de 1945. https://nacoesunidas.org/carta/cap1/

Peterke, Sven. 2009. “Parte 1: Doutrinas Gerais”. Manual Prático de Direitos Humanos Internacionais. Brasília: Escola Superior do Ministério Público da União 96-181. https://www.ufrgs.br/cedop/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Manual_Pratico_Direitos_Humanos_Internacioais-1.pdf

Rezeck, Francisco. 2018. Direito internacional público: curso elementar. 17. ed, São Paulo: Saraiva.

Righetti, Ludovic. 2016. “Emerging technology and the future autonomous weapons”. Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons. Expert meeting, Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC (15-16 March): 36-39. https://shop.icrc.org/autonomous-weapon-systems.html?___store=fr&_ga=2.36932896.1627033310.1572366031-1120845335.1572366031

Rodriguez, Antonio Luis Terrones. 2018. “Inteligencia Artificial y ética de la Responsabilidad. Cuestiones de Filosofía, v. 4, no. 22, 141-170. https://doi.org/10.19053/01235095.v4.n22.2018.8311

Roff, Heather. 2016. “Sensor-fused munitions, missiles and loitering munitions”.

Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons. Expert meeting, Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC (15-16 March): 33-35. https://shop.icrc.org/autonomous-weapon-systems.html?___store=fr&_ga=2.36932896.1627033310.1572366031-1120845335.1572366031

Russel, Stuart J., and Peter Norvig. 2009. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. E-book.

Scherer, Matthew U. 2016. “Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies, and Strategies”. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, vol. 29, no. 2 (Spring): 353-400. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v29/29HarvJLTech353.pdf

Schwab, Klaus. 2018. Aplicando a Quarta Revolução Industrial. Traduzido por Daniel Moreira Miranda. São Paulo: EDIPRO.

Sehrawat, Vivek. 2016. “Autonomous weapon system: Law of armed conflict (LOAC) and other legal challenges”. Computer Law & Security Review: The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice, (Elsevier), Doi: 10.1016/j.clsr.2016.11.001

United Nations. 2015. Study on Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - Prepared on the Recommendation of the Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. New York: United Nations.

Vignard, Kerstin. 2016. “Addressing the challenges raised by increased autonomy”. Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons. Expert meeting, Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC (15-16 March): 65-68. https://shop.icrc.org/autonomous-weapon-systems.html?___store=fr&_ga=2.36932896.1627033310.1572366031-1120845335.1572366031 016

Zawieska, Karolina. 2017. “An ethical perspective on autonomous weapon system”. Perspectives on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems. no. 30 (November): 35-47. https://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/6866E44ADB996042C12581D400630B9A/$file/op30.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26792/rbed.v6n2.2019.75153

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


INDEXADORES